William-Adolphe Bouguereau was born on 30 November 1825, in La Rochelle, France. He began his studies in 1838, with Louis Sage. After moving to Bordeaux in 1842, he attended the cole Municipale de Dessin et de Peinture in Bordeaux. In 1846, he went to Paris to attend cole des Beaux Arts. In 1850, Bouguereau was awarded the coveted Prix de Rome. He spent the next four years at the Villa Medici studying Classical and Renaissance masterpieces. Before beginning a painting he would master the history of his subject and complete numerous sketches. William-Adolphe Bouguereau married Marie-Nelly Monchablon in 1856. The couple had five children. William-Adolphe Bouguereau married his second wife, Elizabeth Gardner in 1896. She was a student and he was her master. They maintained a workshop and residence at Rue Notre-Dame-des Champs, 75. Bouguereau taught at the Academie Julian and the cole des Beaux Arts. He spent the summers in La Rochelle, painting in a studio he had constructed there. William-Adolphe Bouguereau painted 826 paintings. He never forgot his difficult early days, and assisted young artists who were struggling as he had to pursue an artistic career in the face of financial difficulties. William-Adolphe Bouguereau received medals from the Salons and the Universal Expositions, and successive ranks in the Legion of Honor. He was the leading member of the Institute of France and president of the Society of Painters, Sculptors and Engravers. According to William-Adolphe Bouguereau; "Each day I go to my studio full of joy; in the evening when obliged to stop because of darkness I can scarcely wait for the morning to come... My work is not only a pleasure, it has become a necessity. No matter how many other things I have in my life, ifI cannot give myself to my dear painting I am miserable." William-Adolphe Bouguereau died on 19 August 1905, in La Rochelle. He was buried in the cemetery of Montparnasse.
"One has to seek Beauty and Truth, Sir! As I always say to my pupils, you have to work to the finish. There's only one kind of painting. It is the painting that presents the eye with perfection, the kind of beautiful and impeccable enamel you find in Veronese and Titian."William Adolphe Bouguereau
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha was born on 30 November 1719, in Gotha, Germany. She was the daughter of Magdalena Augusta, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (13 October 1679 - 11 October 1740) and Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1676-1732). Her maternal grandparents were Sophia of Saxe-Weissenfels and Karl of Anhalt-Zerbst. Her paternal grandparents were Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels, Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (2 September 1648 - 7 January 1681) and Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (15 July 1646 - 2 August 1691). Augusta's parents were married in 1696. Her siblings included: Sophie of Saxe-Gotha (1697-1703), Frederick of Saxe-Gotha (1699-1772), Wilhelm of Saxe-Gotha (1701-1771), Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Gotha (1702-1703), Johann August of Saxe-Gotha (1704-1767), Christian Wilhelm of Saxe-Gotha (1706-1748), Ludwig Ernst of Saxe-Gotha (1707-1763), Emanuel of Saxe-Gotha (1709-1710), Moritz of Saxe-Gotha (1711-1777), Karl of Saxe-Gotha (1714-1715), Friederike of Saxe-Gotha (1715-1775) and Johann Adolf of Saxe-Gotha (1731-1799). Augusta of Saxe-Gotha married Frederick, Prince of Wales (1 February 1707 - 31 March 1751) on 17 April 1736, at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, London. He was the son of Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland (1 March 1683 - 20 November 1737) and George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland (10 November 1683 - 25 October 1760). They had nine children.
The Children of Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha and Prince Frederick of Wales:
Princess Augusta of Great Britain (31 August 1737 - 31 March 1813) Married Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick in 1764. George III (4 June 1738 - 29 January 1820) Married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1761. Prince Edward, Duke of York (14 March 1739 - 17 September 1767) Princess Elizabeth of Great Britain (30 December 1740 - 4 September 1759) Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (14 November 1743 - 25 August 1805) Married Maria Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave in 1766. Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland (27 November 1745 - 18 September 1790) Married Lady Anne Luttrell in 1771. Princess Louisa of Great Britain (19 March 1749 - 13 May 1768) Prince Frederick of Great Britain (13 May 1750 - 29 December 1765) Princess Caroline Matilda of Great Britain (11 July 1751 - 10 May 1775) Married Christian VII, King of Denmark in 1766.
Her husband, Frederick of Wales died on 31 March 1751. Their last child, a daughter Caroline Matilda of Great Britain was born on 11 July 1751. Her son, George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 May 1744 - 17 November 1818) in 1761. Augusta of Saxe-Gotha died of cancer aged 52, on 8 February 1772, at Carlton House, in London, England. She was interred on 15 February 1772, at Westminster Abbey, in London.
Maria Antonia Giuseppa Walburga Anna Luisa Vicenza Margherita Caterina was born on 28 November 1774, in Parma, Italy. She was the daughter of Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria (26 February 1746 - 9 June 1804) and Ferdinand I, Duke of Parma (20 January 1751 - 9 October 1802). Her maternal grandparents were Maria Theresia, Holy Roman Empress (13 May 1717 - 29 November 1780) and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (8 December 1708 - 18 August 1765). Her paternal grandparents were Marie-Louise-Elisabeth of France (14 August 1727 - 6 December 1759) and Felipe of Spain, Duke of Parma (15 March 1720 - 18 July 1765). Maria Antonia's parents were married on 19 July 1769, at the Chateau de Colorno. Her siblings included: Carolina Maria (22 November 1770 - 1 March 1804), Louis (5 August 1773 - 27 May 1803), Charlotte Maria (7 September 1777 - 5 April 1813), Philip Maria (22 May 1783 - 2 July 1786), Antoniette Louise (21 October 1784) and Marie Louise (17 April 1787 - 22 November 1789). She was named after her aunt and godmother, Marie Antoinette, Queen Consort of France and Navarre (1755-1793). Known as Tognina, she was trained in painting by Giuseppe Baldrighi and Domenico Muzzi, Professors of the Academy of Fine Arts of Parma. Her sister, Carolina married Prince Maximilian of Saxony (1759-1838) on 9 May 1792, in Dresdenfifth. Her father, Ferdinand died on 9 October 1802. In 1802, Maria Antonia became an Ursuline novice. She officially received the habit of an Ursuline nun and changed her name to Sister Luigia Maria on 22 April 1803. She lived in the Ursuline convent, in Parma. Her mother, Maria Amalia died on 18 June 1804, in Prague. Sister Luigia Maria moved on 9 May 1831, to the Convent of St. Agatha, in Rome. Sister Luigia Maria died on 20 February 1841, in the Convent of St. Agatha, in Rome.
Sophie Magdalene was born on 28 November 1700, in Castle Schonberg. She was the daughter of Countess Sophie Christiane of Wolfstein and Christian Heinrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (29 July 1661 - 5 April 1708). Her paternal grandparents were Marie Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sondenburg-Glücksburg and Georg Albrecht of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach. Sophie Magdalene's parents were married on 14 August 1687, at the Schloss Obersulzburg. Her siblings were: Georg Frederick (30 June 1688 - 17 May 1735), Albrecht Wolfgang (8 December 1689 - 29 June 1734), Dorothea Charlotte (15 March 1691 - 18 March 1712), Frederick Emanuel (13 February 1692 - 13 January 1693), Christiane Henriette ( 29 August 1693 - 19 May 1695), Frederick Wilhelm (12 January 1695 - 13 May 1695), Christiane (31 October 1698-31 October 1698), Christian August (14 July 1699 - 29 July 1700), Christine Wilhelmine (17 June 1702 - 19 March 1704), Frederick Ernst (15 December 1703 - 23 June 1762), Marie Eleonore (28 December 1704 - 4 June 1705), Sophie Caroline (31 March 1705 - 7 June 1764) and Frederick Christian (17 July 1708 - 20 January 1769). Sophie Magdalene married Prince Christian of Denmark and Norway (30 November 1699 - 6 August 1746) on 7 August 1721, at the Castle Pretzsch, in Sachsen. He was the son of Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Queen Consort of Denmark and Norway (28 August 1667 - 15 March 1721) and Frederick IV, King of Denmark and Norway (11 October 1671 - 12 October 1730).
The Children of Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Christian VI: Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway (31 March 1723 - 13 January 1766)
Princess Louise of Denmark (1724-1724) Princess Louise of Denmark (19 October 1726 - 8 August 1756) Married Ernst Friedrich III of Sachsen-Hildburghausen.
Her father-in-law, Frederick IV died 12 October 1730, at Odense Palace. He was interred in the Roskilde Cathedral. He was succeeded by her husband, as Christian VI. Her son, Prince Frederick married Princess Louise of Great Britain (7 December 1724 - 19 December 1751) on 11 December 1743 at Altona, in Holstein. She was the daughter of Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland (1 March 1683 - 20 November 1737) and George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland (10 November 1683 - 25 October 1760). Her husband, Christian VI died on 6 August 1746, at Hirschholm Palace. He was interred in the Roskilde Cathedral. He was succeeded by their son, as Frederick V. Sophie Magdalene died on 27 May 1770, at Christiansborg Palace. She was interred in Roskilde Cathedral.
Margaret Tudor was born on 28 November 1489, at the Palace of Westminster, in England. She was the daughter of Elizabeth of York, Queen Consort of England (11 February 1466 - 11 February 1503) and Henry VII, King of England (28 January 1457 - 21 April 1509). Her maternal grandparents were Elizabeth Woodville and Edward IV, King of England. Her paternal grandparents were Lady Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Margaret's parents were married on 26 January 1486, at Westminster. Her siblings were: Arthur, Prince of Wales (20 September 1486 - 2 April 1502), Henry VIII, King of England (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547), Elizabeth Tudor (2 July 1492 - 14 September 1495), Mary, Queen Consort of France (18 March 1496 - 25 June 1533), Edmund, Duke of Somerset (21 February 1499 - 19 June 1500) and Katherine Tudor (2 February 1503). Margaret was christened on 30 November 1489, in the Chapel in Westminster by John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1496, Margaret Tudor was betrothed to James IV, King of Scots at Richmond Palace. She declared, "I, Margaret, the first begotten daughter of the right excellent, right high and mighty prince and princess, Henry by the Grace of God king of England, and Elizabeth queen of the same, wittingly and of deliberate mind, having twelve years complete in age in the month of November last past, contract matrimony with the right excellent, right high and mighty prince, James king of Scotland, and the person of whom, Patrick earl of Bothwell, procurator of the said prince, represents, and take the said James king of Scotland into and for my husband and spouse, and all other for him forsake, during his and mine lives natural, and thereto I plight and give to him, in your person as procurator aforesaid, my faith and troth."Her brother, Arthur, Prince of Wales married Katherine of Aragon (1485-1536) on 14 November 1501, at St. Paul's Cathedral. Her brother, Arthur died on 2 April 1502. Her mother, Elizabeth died on 11 February 1503. Margaret was crowned Queen in March 1504, in Edinburgh.
The Children of Margaret Tudor and James IV:
James, Duke of Rothesay (21 February 1507 - 27 February 1508)
Arthur, Duke of Rothesay (20 October 1509 - 14 July 1510)
James V (10 April 1512 - 14 December 1542) Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross (30 April 1514 - 18 December 1515)
Her father, King Henry VII died of tuberculosis on 21 April 1509, at Richmond Palace. He was interred in Westminster Abbey, London. He was succedeed by her brother, as Henry VIII. Henry VIII married his brother's widow, Katherine of Aragon on 7 June 1509, in the Chapel of Placentia, at Greenwich. Henry VIII was crowned King of England on 24 June 1509. James IV was killed on 9 September 1513. By his will, Margaret was appointed sole guardian of her infant son, King James V. Her sister, Mary married Louis XII, King of France (1462-1515) on 9 October 1514, in Abbeville. Margaret privately married her second husband, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus (1490 - January 1557) on 6 August 1514. He was the son of Elizabeth Drummond and George, Master of Angus. Her brother-in-law, Louis XII died on 1 January 1515. He was interred at the Saint-Denis Basilica. Her sister, Mary married her second husband, Charles on 13 May 1515, at Greenwich Palace. In September 1515, Margaret fled to England where she gave birth to a daughter, Margaret.
The Child of Margaret Tudor and Archibald Douglas:
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (8 October 1515 - 7 March 1578) Married Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox.
In the summer of 1516, Margaret went to her brother Henry VIII's Court in London, while Douglas returned to Scotland. In October 1518, Margaret wrote to Henry VIII, "I am sore troubled with my Lord of Angus since my last coming into Scotland, and every day more and more, so that we have not been together this half year… I am so minded that, an I may by law of God and to my honour, to part with him, for I wit well he loves me not, as he shows me daily." Margaret and Douglas were divorced on 11 March 1527. Margaret married her third husband Henry Stewart, 1st Lord Metheven in 1528. Her brother, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn (1502-1536) on 25 January 1533. Her sister, Mary died on 25 June 1533, at Westhorpe Hall, in Westhorpe, Suffolk. Katherine of Aragon died on 7 January 1536, at Kimbolton Castle. Anne Boleyn was arrested on 2 May 1536 and taken to the Tower. Anne Boleyn was executed on 19 May 1536. Henry VIII and Jane Seymour (c.1508-1537) were married on 30 May 1536. Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves on 6 January 1540. Their marriage was annulled on 9 July 1540. Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard (1520-1542) on 28 July 1540, at Oatlands Palace, in Surrey. Margaret Tudor died of a stroke on 18 October 1541, at Methven Castle, in Perthshire. She was interred at the Carthusian Priory of St. John, in Perth.
Francis Bernard Dicksee was born on 27 November 1853, in London, England. He was the son of Thomas Francis Dicksee. His siblings included: Margaret Isabel Dicksee (1858-1903) and Herbert Thomas Dicksee (1862-1942). He studied in the studio of his father, Thomas Francis Dicksee. In 1871, Francis Bernard Dicksee was granted a studentship at the Royal Academy Schools, in London. In 1872, he won a silver medal for drawing from the Antique. In 1875, he won a gold medal for his painting Elijah confronting Ahab and Jezebel in Naboth's Vineyard. In 1876, he made his debut at the Royal Academy. During the 1780s, he also began to work as an illustrator for Cassell's Magazine, Cornhill Magazine and The Graphic. In 1884, Dicksee painted Romeo and Juliet. In 1890, Shakespeare's Othello. Frank Bernard Dicksee married Eliza Bernard. His sister, Margaret Isabel Dicksee and brother Herbert Thomas Dicksee were also painters, as was his uncle John Robert Dicksee (1817-1905). In 1891, Frank Bernard Dicksee was elected to the Academy. In 1924, he became its President. In 1925, he was Knighted. In 1927, he was named to the Royal Victorian Order by King George V. Sir Francis Bernard Dicksee died on 17 October 1928.
Princess Mary Adelaide was born on 27 November 1833, in Hanover, Germany. She was the daughter of Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel (25 July 1797 - 6 April 1889) and Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774 - 8 July 1850). Her maternal grandparents were Princess Caroline Polyxene of Nassau-Usingen and Prince Frederick of Hesse. Her paternal grandparents were Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen Consort of the United Kingdom (19 May 1744 - 17 November 1818) and George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover (4 June 1738 - 29 January 1820). Mary Adelaide's parents were married on 7 May 1818, in Kassel, and then, on 1 June 1818, at Buckingham Palace, in London. Her siblings were: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge (26 March 1819 - 17 March 1904) and Princess Augusta of Cambridge (19 July 1822 - 4 December 1916). George IV died in 1830. He was succeeded by his brother, as William IV (- 20 June 1837). William IV died on 20 June 1837. He was succeeded by her cousin, Princess Victoria of Kent (1819-1901). As Salic law prevented Victoria from ascending the throne of Hanover, which instead passed to Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, the Duke of Cambridge and his family returned to Great Britain, where they lived at Cambridge Cottage, Kew, and later at St. James's Palace. Mary Adelaide married Prince Francis of Teck on 12 June 1866, at Kew Church, in Surrey. They had four children.
The Children of Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck and Francis, Duke of Teck:
Princess Victoria Mary of Teck (26 May 1867 - 24 March 1953) Married Prince George, Duke of York in 1893. Prince Adolphus of Teck (13 August 1868 - 23 October 1927) Married Lady Margaret Evelyn Grosvenor in 1894. Prince Francis of Teck (9 January 1870 - 22 October 1910) Prince Alexander of Teck (14 April 1874 - 16 January 1957) Married Princess Alice of Albany in 1904.
Mary Adelaide lived a life in luxury until 1883, when the Tecks were forced to flee the country to avoid their creditors. As the Count and Countess von Hohenstein, they travelled to Florence, Italy, Germany and Austria. In 1885, the family returned from exile and resided at White Lodge, in Richmond Park. Mary Adelaide began devoting her life to charity. In 1887, her husband was promoted to the rank of Highness to celebrate Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee. Her mother, Augusta of Hesse-Cassel died on 6 April 1889. Her daughter, Mary married Prince George, Duke of York on 6 July 1893, at the Chapel Royal, in St. James's Palace, London. Mary and George's first child, a son, named Edward was born 23 June 1894. Mary Adelaide died aged 63, on 27 October 1897, at White Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey. She was interred in the Royal vault, at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor.
Princess Marie Sophie Fredrica Dagmar was born 26 November 1847, in the Yellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark. She was the daughter of Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Queen Consort of Denmark (7 September 1817 - 29 September 1898) and Christian IX, King of Denmark (8 April 1818 - 29 January 1906). Her maternal grandparents were Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark (30 October 1789 - 28 March 1864) and Landgrave William of Hesse-Kassel (24 December 1787 - 5 September 1867). Her paternal grandparents were Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel (28 September 1789 - 13 March 1867) and Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (4 January 1785 - 17 February 1831). Dagmar's parents were married 26 May 1842, at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen. Her siblings were: Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark (3 June 1843 - 14 May 1912), Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1 December 1844 - 20 November 1925), Prince Vilhelm of Denmark (24 December 1845 - 18 March 1913), Princess Thyra of Denmark (29 September 1853 - 26 February 1933) and Prince Valdemar of Denmark (27 October 1858 - 14 January 1939). Dagmar was very close to her older sister, Alexandra. Alexandra married Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (9 November 1841 - 6 May 1910) on 10 March 1863, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Dagmar was betrothed to Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich on 28 September 1864. Nicholas died from tuberculosis on 22 April 1865. Dagmar returned to Denmark. In June 1866, the Tsesarevich Alexander asked Princess Dagmar for her hand while on a visit to Copenhagen. Dagmar and Alexander became engaged on 23 June 1866. Princess Dagmar left Copenhagen on 1 September 1866. She converted to the Russian orthodox faith and was granted the title, Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia. Maria and Alexander were married on 9 November 1866, in the Imperial Chapel of the Winter Palace, in St.Petersburg. After the wedding night, Alexander wrote in his diary, "I took off my slippers and my silver embroidered robe and felt the body of my beloved next to mine... How I felt then, I do not wish to describe here. Afterwards we talked for a long time." The newlyweds moved into the Anichkov Palace in St.Petersburg. They had four sons and two daughters.
The Children of Maria Feodorovna and Alexander III: Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich of Russia (7 June 1869 - 2 May 1870) Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia (6 May 1871 - 9 August 1899) Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia (6 April 1875 - 20 April 1960) Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich (28 November 1878 - ca 12 June 1918) Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (13 June 1882 - 24 November 1960)
Her father-in-law, Alexander II was assassinated on 13 March 1881, by a bomb on the way to the Winter Palace. In her diary, Maria Feodorovna later wrote, "His legs were crushed terribly and ripped open to the knee; a bleeding mass, with half a boot on the right foot, and only the sole of the foot remaining on the left." He was succeeded by his son, as Alexander III. Maria wrote in her diary, "Our happiest and serenest times are now over. My peace and calm are gone, for now I will only ever be able to worry about Sasha." Maria and Alexander III were crowned on 27 May 1883, at the Kremlin, in Moscow. After the coronation Maria and Alexander III moved to the Gatchina Palace. In July 1894, her sister Alexandra visited Maria at Gatchina Palace. Her son, Nicholas wished to marry Princess Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt (6 June 1872 - 17 July 1918). She was the daughter of Princess Alice of England (25 April 1843 - 14 December 1878) and Grand Duke Ludwig IV of Hesse and the Rhine (12 September 1837 - 13 March 1892). Alexander III died on 1 November 1894, at Livadia. According to the diary of Maria, "I am utterly heartbroken and despondent, but when I saw the blissful smile and the peace in his face that came after, it gave me strength." At the end of November 1894, Maria moved into the Anichkov Palace in St.Petersburg. Her mother, Louise of Hesse-Kassel died on 29 September 1898, in Bernstorff Palace, Gentofte, Denmark. Her father, Christian IX died on 29 January 1906. He was succeeded by her brother, as Frederick VIII. In March 1917, Revolution broke out in Russia. After Maria left Russia, she received reports that her son, daughter-in-law and grandchildren had been murdered. She wrote in her diary, "I am sure they all got out of Russia and now the Bolsheviks are trying to hide the truth." Her sister, Alexandra died on 20 November 1925, at Sandringham House, Norfolk. She was buried on 28 November 1925, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Maria Feodorovna died aged 80, on 13 October 1928, in Hvidøre, near Copenhagen. She was interred on 19 October 1928, at Roskilde Cathedral. A statue of Maria Feodorovna was unveiled on 26 September 2006, in Peterhof. She was interred on 28 September 2006, next to her husband Alexander III in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Maria Feodorovna once wrote in a letter to her son Nicholas II, "You know that my thoughts and prayers never leave you. I think of you day and night and sometimes feel so sick at heart that I believe I cannot bear it any longer. But God is merciful. He will give us strength for this terrible ordeal." Her daughter, Olga Alexandrovna said, "Yet I am sure that deep in her heart my mother had steeled herself to accept the truth some years before her death."
Princess Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria was born on 26 November 1869, at Marlborough House, in London, England. She was the fifth child of Alexandra of Denmark, Queen Consort of the United Kingdom and Empress Consort of India (1 December 1844 - 20 November 1925) and Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India (9 November 1841 - 6 May 1910). Her maternal grandparents were Louise of Hesse-Cassel, Queen Consort of Denmark (7 September 1817 - 29 September 1898) and Christian IX, King of Denmark (8 April 1818 - 29 January 1906). Her paternal grandparents were Queen Victoria ( 24 May 1819 - 22 January 1901) and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (26 August 1819 - 14 December 1861). Maud's parents were married on 10 March 1863, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Her siblings were: Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (8 January 1864 - 14 January 1892), King George V (3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936), Louise, Princess Royal (20 February 1867 - 4 January 1931), Princess Victoria (6 July 1868 - 3 December 1935) and Prince Alexander John (6 April 1871 - 7 April 1871). She was christened Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria on 24 December 1869, at Marlborough House by John Jackson, Bishop of London. Her godparents included: Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany and Maria Feodorovna. Maud grew up at Sandringham, in Norfolk. Princess Maud, Princess Victoria and Princess Louise, received the Imperial Order of the Crown of India from Queen Victoria on 6 August 1887. Her sister, Louise married Alexander William George Duff (1849-1912) on Saturday 27 July 1889, at the Private Chapel, in Buckingham Palace, London. Maud married Prince Carl of Denmark on 22 July 1896, in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace, London. He was the son of Louise of Sweden, Queen Consort of Denmark (31 October 1851 - 20 March 1926) and Frederik VIII, King of Denmark (3 June 1843 - 14 May 1912). After the honeymoon, they lived in Copenhagen. She gave birth to a son, Alexander on 2 July 1903. In 1905, when the political union linking Norway and Sweden was dissolved, Norway voted to be a monarchy and Prince Carl was elected King. He changed his name to Haakon and their son, became Crown Prince Olav. Maud and Haakon VII were crowned on 22 June 1906, in Trondheim. Queen Maud's magnificent wardrobe illustrates the changes in women's fashions of the era. Couturiers and dressmakers in Britain, France and Norway made beautiful state gowns, evening dresses, tailored suits, riding habits and winter clothes for the Queen. Her sister, Louise died on 4 January 1931, in Portman Square, London. Maud supported charitable causes, and gave encouragement to musicians and artists. She attended the coronation of her nephew, King George VI in May 1937. Queen Maud died of heart failure on 20 November 1938, in London, England. She was interred in the Royal mausoleum, at the Castle of Akershus. In 1940, Norway was occupied by the German. Haakon VII went into exile in London. Haakon VII died on 21 September 1957. He was succeeded by his son, as Olav V.
Catherine Henrietta was born 25 November 1638, in Vila Viçosa, Portugal. She was the daughter of Luisa de Guzmán (31 October 1613 - 27 February 1666) and John IV of Portugal. Her maternal grandparents were Juana Lorenza Gomez de Sandoval y la Cerda and Juan Manuel Perez de Guzman, the 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia. Her paternal grandparents were Ana de Velasco y Girón and Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza. Catherine's parents were married on 12 January 1633. Her siblings were: Prince Teodósio (8 February 1634 -13 May 1653), Ana de Bragança (21 January 1635 -21 January 21 1635), Princess Joana (18 September 1635 - 17 November 1653), Manuel de Bragança (6 September 1640 - 6 September 1640), Prince Afonso (21 August 1643 - 12 September 1683), Infante Pedro (26 April 1648 - 9 December 1706). Her father also had an illegitimate daughter, Maria de Bragança (30 April 1644 - 7 February 1693). Following the restoration of a Portuguese Royal House, her father accsended to the throne on 1 December 1640. A marriage treaty between Catherine and Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (29 May 1630 - 6 February 1685) was signed on 23 June 1661. He was the son of Henrietta Maria of France, Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (25 November 1609 - 10 September 1669) and Charles I, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649). They were married by proxy on 23 April 1662, in Lisbon. Catherine arrived on 14 May 1662, in Portsmouth. Catherine and Charles II were then married in a Catholic ceremony in secret, followed by a public Anglican service on 21 May 1662. In the summer of 1662, the King's mistress, Lady Barbara Villiers (November 1640 - 9 October 1709) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber. In April 1668, her husband, the King began a new romance, with the actress Nell Gwynne (2 February 1650 - 14 November 1687). In 1670, the Lady in Waiting, Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille (September 1649 - 14 November 1734) to Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orléans (16 June 1644 - 30 June 1670) accompanied her on a visit to Charles II at Dover. Henrietta Anne died on 30 June 1670. Charles II then appointed Louise a Lady in Waiting to his wife, Catherine. Catherine introduced the custom of drinking tea in England. The tea had been imported to Portugal from Asia. She also introduced the fork to the dining tables of England. Charles II died on 6 February 1685. He was succeeded by his brother as, James II, King of England (1633-1701). In March 1692, she returned to Portugal. In 1703, Catherine supported the Treaty of Methuen with England. Catherine died aged 67, on 31 December 1705, at the Bemposta Palace, in Lisbon, Portugal. She was buried at the Jerónimos Monastery, in Belém, Lisbon.
Henrietta Maria de France was born on 25 November 1609, at the Palais du Louvre, in France. She was the daughter of Marie de' Medici, Queen Consort of France and Navarre (26 April 1573 - 3 July 1642) and Henri IV, King of France and Navarre (13 December 1553 - 14 May 1610). Her maternal grandparents were Johanna, Archduchess of Austria (24 January 1547 - 11 April 1578) and Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (25 March 1541 - 17 October 1587). Her paternal grandparents were Jeanne d'Albret, Queen Consort of Navarre (7 January 1528 - 9 June 1572) and Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre (22 April 1518 - 17 November 1562). Henri III died on 2 August 1589. He was succeeded by Henri of Navarre as King of France. Marie de' Medici was his second wife, following the annulment of his marriage to Marguerite de Valois (14 May 1553 - 27 May 1615) in 1599. Marie de' Medici and Henri IV had six children, her siblings were: Louis (27 September 1601 - 14 May 1643), Elizabeth (22 November 1602 - 6 October 1644), Christine Marie (10 February 1606 - 27 December 1663), Nicholas Henri (16 April 1607 - 17 November 1611) and Gaston (25 April 1608 - 2 February 1660). Henri IV was assassinated on 14 May 1610, in Paris, by François Ravaillac. He was interred at the Saint-Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, as Louis XIII. Until 1617, Marie de' Medici served as Regent. Henrietta Maria married by proxy Charles I, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649) on 11 May 1625, before they were married in person on 13 June 1625, at the St. Augustine's Church, in Canterbury, Kent. He was the son of Anne of Denmark and James I, King of England.
The Children of Henrietta Maria of France and Charles I:
Charles James, Duke of Cornwall (13 March 1629 - 13 March 1629) Stillborn Charles II Stuart (29 May 1630 - 6 February 1685) Married Princess Catherine of Braganca in 1663. Mary, Princess Royal (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) Married William II, Prince of Orange in 1641. James II, King of England (14 October 1633 - 16 September 1701) Married 1st: Lady Anne Hyde in 1659. 2nd: Mary of Modena in 1673. Elizabeth, Princess of England (29 December 1635 - 8 September 1650)
Anne, Princess of England (17 March 1637 - 8 December 1640)
Catherine, Princess of England (29 January 1639 - 29 January 1639) Stillborn. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (8 July 1640 - 18 September 1660)
Henrietta Anne, Princess of England (26 June 1644 - 30 June 1670) Married Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans in 1661.
Her daughter, Mary married William of Orange (1626-1650) on 2 May 1641, at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace, in London. In August 1642, when the conflict began, Henrietta Maria was in Europe. In 1643, she returned to England. In July 1644, she fled to France. Her husband, Charles I was executed on 30 January 1649, at the Palace of Whitehall. He was buried in private on the night of 7 February 1649, inside the Henry VIII vault, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Her daughter, Elizabeth died of pneumonia on 8 September 1650, at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight, England. She was buried at St. Thomas Church, Newport, Isle of Wight. Her son, James married Lady Anne Hyde (22 March 1638 - 31 March 1671) in 1659. Henrietta Maria settled in Paris, appointing as her chancellor Sir Kenelm Digby. Her son, Charles II arrived on 23 May 1660, in England. Charles II arrived on 29 May 1660, in London and was restored to the English throne. In October 1660, Henrietta Maria returned to England and lived at Somerset House, in London. Her daughter, Henrietta Anne married Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans (21 September 1640 - 9 June 1701) on 31 March 1661, in the chapel of the Palais-Royal, in Paris. He was the son of Anne of Austria and Louis XIII. Her son, Charles II married Princess Catherine of Braganca (1638-1705) in 1663. In 1665, she returned permanently to France. She founded a convent at Chaillot. Henrietta Maria died on 10 September 1669, at Château de Colombes. She was interred in the Royal Tombs, at Saint-Denis Basilica, in Saint-Denis.
Maria Louisa of Spain was born on 24 November 1745, in Portici, Campania. She was the daughter of Maria Amalia of Saxony, Queen Consort of Spain (24 November 1724 - 27 September 1760) and Carlos III, King of Spain (20 January 1716 - 14 December 1788). Her maternal grandparents were Maria Josepha of Austria (8 December 1699 - 17 November 1757) and Frederick Augustus II, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony (17 October 1696 - 5 October 1763). Her paternal grandparents were Elisabeth Farnese (25 October 1692 - 11 July 1766) and Felipe V, King of Spain (19 December 1683 - 9 July 1746). Maria Louisa's parents were married in 1738. Her mother, Maria Amalia of Saxony died on 27 September 1760, at Buen Retiro Palace, in Madrid, Spain. She was interred in El Escorial, Spain. Maria Louisa of Spain married Archduke Peter Leopold of Austria (5 May 1747 - 1 March 1792) by proxy on 16 February 1764, in Madrid. He was the son of Maria Theresia, Holy Roman Empress (13 May 1717 - 29 November 1780) and Franz I, Holy Roman Emperor (8 December 1708 - 18 August 1765). The brother of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and Marie Antoinette, Queen Consort of France and Navarre (1755-1793). The couple were married in person on 5 August 1765, in Innsbruck. Her father-in-law, Franz I died on 18 August 1765, in Innsbruck. He was interred in the Imperial Crypt, in Wien. Her husband, Peter Leopold succeeded him as Grand Duke of Tuscany. Maria Louisa and Leopold had sixteen children.
The Children of Maria Louisa of Spain and Leopold II:
Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (14 January 1767 - 7 November 1827) Married Anton I of Saxony in 1787.
Franz II, Holy Roman Emperor (12 February 1768 - 2 March 1835) Married 1st: Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg in 1788. Married 2nd: Maria Teresa, Princess of Bourbon in 1790. Married 3rd: Archduchess Marie Ludovika of Austria-Este in 1808. Married 4th: Caroline of Bavaria in 1816.
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (6 May 1769 - 18 Jun 1824) Married 1st:Princess Luisa of the Two Sicilies in 1790. Married 2nd: Princess Marie Ferdinanda von Sachsen in 1821.
Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (22 April 1770 - 1 October 1809)
Archduke Charles of Austria (5 September 1771 - 30 April 1847) Married Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg in 1815.
Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria (15 August 1772 - 12 July 1795)
Archduke Albrecht Johann of Austria (19 September 1773 - 22 July 1774)
Archduke Maximilian of Austria (23 December 1774 - 10 March 1778)
Archduke Joseph of Austria ( 9 March 1776 - 13 January 1847) Married 1st: Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia in 1799. Married 2nd: Hermine Prinzessin von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym in 1815. Married 3rd: Duchess Maria Dorothea von Württemberg in 1819.
Archduchess Maria Clementina of Austria (24 April 1777 - 11 March 1801) Married Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies in 1797.
Archduke Anton of Austria (1779-1835)
Archduke Johann of Austria (1782-1859) Archduke Rainer of Austria (30 September 1783 - 16 January 1853) Married Princess Elisabeth of Savoy-Carignan in 1820.
Archduke Louis of Austria (13 December 1784 - 21 December 1864)
Archduke Rudolph of Austria (8 January 1788 - 24 Jul 1831)
Her mother-in-law, Maria Theresia died on 29 November 1780, in Wien, Austria. She was interred in the Imperial Crypt, Wien, Austria. She was succeeded by her son, as Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (1741-1790). Her father, Carlos III died on 14 December 1788, in the Royal Palace of Madrid, in Madrid, Spain. Her brother-in-law, Joseph II died on 20 February 1790, in Wien. He was succeeded by her husband, as Leopold II. Leopold II died on 1 March 1792. He was interred at Capuchin Church, in Wien, Austria. He was succeeded by his son, as Franz II. Maria Louisa of Spain died aged 46, on 15 May 1792, at the Imperial Palace of the Hofburg, in Wien, Austria.
Carolina Maria Teresa Giuseppa was born on 22 November 1770, in Parma. She was the daughter of Maria Amalia of Austria, Duchess Consort of Parma (26 February 1746 - 18 June 1804) and Ferdinand, Duke of Parma (20 January 1751 - 9 October 1802). Her maternal grandparents were Maria Theresia, Holy Roman Empress and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her paternal grandparents were Marie-Louise-Elisabeth of France (14 August 1727 - 6 December 1759) and Felipe of Spain, Duke of Parma (15 March 1720 - 18 July 1765). Carolina's parents were married on 19 July 1769, at the Château de Colorno. Her siblings included: Louis I, King of Etruria, Duke of Parma (5 August 1773 - 27 May 1803), Princess Maria Antonia of Parma (28 November 1774 - 20 February 1841), Princess Charlotte Maria of Parma (7 September 1777 - 5 April 1813), Prince Philip Maria of Parma (22 May 1783 - 2 July 1786), Princess Antoniette Louise of Parma (21 October 1784) and Princess Marie Louise of Parma (17 April 1787 - 22 November 1789). Her mother, Maria Amalia was the sister of Marie Antoinette, Queen Consort of France and Navarre (1755-1793). Carolina of Parma married Prince Maximilian of Saxony (13 April 1759 - 3 January 1838) by proxy on 22 April 1792, in Parma, and in person on 9 May 1792, in Dresdenfifth. He was the son of Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa, Princess of Bavaria (18 July 1724 - 23 April 1780) and Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony (5 September 1722 - 17 December 1763). Carolina and Maximillian had seven children.
The Children of Carolina of Parma and Maximilian of Saxony:
Amalie Marie Friederike Auguste, Princess of Saxony (10 August 1794 - 18 September 1870)
Maria Ferdinanda Amalia (27 April 1796 - 3 January 1865) Married Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Frederick Augustus II, King of Saxony (18 May 1797 - 9 August 1854)
Clemens Maria Joseph (1 May 1798 - 4 January 1822)
Maria Anna Carolina (15 November 1799 - 24 March 1832) Married Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Johann Nepomuk Maria (12 December 1801 - 29 October 1873) Married Princess Amalia of Bavaria in 1822.
Maria Josepha (7 December 1803 - 18 May 1829) Married Ferdinand VII, King of Spain in 1819.
Her father, Ferdinand died on 9 October 1802. Her mother, Maria Amalia died on 18 June 1804, in Prague. Princess Carolina died aged 33, on 1 March 1804, in Dresden. Maximilian married his second wife, Marie Louise Charlotte, Crown Princess of Saxony (1802-1857) by proxy on 15 November 1825, in Lucca, and in person on 7 November 1825, in Dresden. She was the daughter of Maria Louisa of Spain, Queen of Etruria (1782-1824) and Louis, Duke of Parma, King of Etruria (1773-1803).
Louise-Élisabeth de Bourbon-Condé was born on 22 November 1693, at Versailles, France. She was the daughter of Louise-Francoise de Bourbon (1 June 1673 - 16 June 1743) and Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon (10 November 1668 - 4 March 1710). Her maternal grandparents were Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Marchioness of Montespan (5 October 1641 - 27 May 1707) and Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre (5 September 1638 - 1 September 1715). Her paternal grandparents were Anne Henriette Julie of Bavaria (13 March 1648 - 23 February 1723) and Henry Jules, Duke of Enghien (- 1 April 1709). Louise-Élisabeth's parents were married on 25 May 1685. Her siblings were: Marie Anne Gabrielle Éléonore de Bourbon (22 December 1690 - 30 August 1760), Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, Prince of Condé (18 August 1692 - 27 January 1740), Louise Anne de Bourbon-Condé (23 June 1695 - 8 April 1758), Marie Anne de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Clermont (16 October 1697 - 11 August 1741), Charles de Bourbon, Count of Charolais (19 June 1700 - 23 July 1760), Henriette Louise Marie Françoise Gabrielle de Bourbon (15 January 1703 - 19 September 1772), Élisabeth Thérèse Alexandrine de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Sens (15 September 1705 - 15 April 1765) and Louis de Bourbon, Count of Clermont (15 June 1709 - 16 June 1771). Her father, Louis died on 4 March 1710, at the Palace of Versailles. Louise-Elisabeth married Louis Armand II de Bourbon, Prince of Conti (10 November 1696 - 4 May 1727) on 9 July 1713. He was the son of Marie Thérèse de Bourbon and François Louis, Prince of Conti.
The Children of Louise-Élisabeth de Bourbon-Condé and Louis Armand II de Bourbon:
Louis François I de Bourbon, Prince de Conti (13 August 1717 - 2 August 1776)
Louise de Conti (20 June 1726 - 9 February 1759)
Her husband, Louis died on 4 May 1727. In 1740, Louise-Élisabeth de Bourbon-Condé was created the Comtesse de Sancerre. Her mother, Louise-Françoise died on 16 June 1743, at the Palais Bourbon. Her daughter, Louise married Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (12 May 1725 - 18 November 1785) on 17 December 1743, in the chapel of the Palace of Versailles. He was the son of Margravine Auguste Marie Johanna of Baden-Baden, Duchess of Orléans (10 November 1704 - 8 August 1726) and Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (4 August 1703 - 4 February 1752). Louise-Élisabeth de Bourbon-Condé died on 27 May 1775, in Paris, France.
Mary of Guise was born on 22 November 1515, in Bar-le-Duc, Lorraine, France. She was the daughter of Antoinette de Bourbon-La Marche (25 December 1493 - 22 January 1583) and Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Guise (20 October 1496 - 12 April 1550). Her maternal grandparents were Marie de Luxembourg and François, Count of Vendôme. Mary's parents were married on 9 June 1513. Her siblings were: Francis, Duke of Guise (1519-1563), Louise of Guise (10 January 1520 - 18 October 1542), Renée of Guise (2 September 1522 - 3 April 1602), Charles, Duke of Chevreuse (1524–1574), Claude, Duke of Aumale (1526-1573), Louis I, Cardinal of Guise (1527-1578), Philip (3 September 1529 - 24 September 1529), Peter (3 April 1530-), Antoinette of Guise (31 August 1531 - 6 March 1561), Francis, Grand Prior of the Order of Malta (18 April 1534 - 6 March 1563) and René, Marquis of Elbeuf (1536-1566). Mary of Guise married Louis d'Orleans, Duc de Longueville on 4 August 1534, at the Louvre. She gave birth to her first child, a son Francois on 30 October 1535. In the winter of 1536, she attended the wedding of Madeleine de Valois (10 August 1520 - 7 July 1537) and James V, King of Scotland (10 April 1512 - 14 December 1542) at Notre Dame Cathedral, in Paris. Her husband, Louis died 9 June 1537, at Rouen. Mary gave birth to another son, Louis on 4 August 1537.
The Children of Mary of Guise and Louis d'Orleans:
Francois d'Orleans (30 October 1535 - )
Louis d'Orleans (4 August 1537 - December 1537)
Madeleine de Valois died of tuberculosis on 7 July 1537. Mary now became the focus of James V, as a bride to further the interests of the Franco-Scottish alliance against England. Henry VIII, King of England (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) tried to prevent this union by asking for Mary's hand for himself. Mary was said to have replied; "I may be a big woman, but I have very little neck." Her son, Louis died only four months old in December 1537. Mary of Guise married James V by proxy on 18 May 1538, at Notre-Dame de Paris. In June 1538, Mary departed from France, forced to leave her son François behind. She landed on 10 June 1538, in Fife, and was formally received by James V. The couple were married in person a few days later in June 1538, at St Andrews. Mary was crowned as Queen Consort on 22 February 1540, at Holyrood Abbey. Mary and James V had two sons, James and Robert. James died on 21 April 1541, then Robert died, a few days after his older brother, only eight days after his baptism in April 1541. The third and last child of the couple was a daughter, Mary.
The Children of Mary of Guise and James V James Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (22 May 1540 - 21 April 1541) Robert (1541 - April 1541) Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 - 8 February 1587)
Her husband, James V died on 14 December 1542, at Falkland Palace, Fife. He was buried beside Madeleine and his sons by Mary of Guise, in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Before James V died, he is reported to have said; "It came wi a lass, it'll gang wi a lass" (It began with a girl and it will end with a girl). He was succeeded by his daughter, Mary. Her father, Claude died on 12 April 1550, at Château de Joinville. Her son, François died in 1551. Her daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots was sent to France to be raised in the Court there. As Regent of Scotland, Mary always consulted with her brothers in France, Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, and Francis, Duke of Guise. In 1559, Mary of Guise was deposed by the Lords of the Congregation. Mary of Guise died of dropsy, aged 44, on 11 June 1560, at Edinburgh Castle. She was interred at the Convent of Saint-Pierre, in Reims, where her sister Renée was the abbess. Her mother, Antoinette died on 22 January 1583, at the Chateau de Joinville.
Princess Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise of the United Kingdom was born on 21 November 1840, at Buckingham Palace, in London, England. She was the eldest daughter of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (24 May 1819 - 22 January 1901) and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (26 August 1819 - 14 December 1861). Her maternal grandparents were Victoria of Saxe-Coburg, Duchess of Kent and Strathearn (17 August 1786 - 16 March 1861) and Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 - 23 January 1820). Her paternal grandparents were Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (21 December 1800 - 30 August 1831) and Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (2 January 1784 - 29 January 1844). Her siblings were: Edward VII (1841-1910), Alice (1843-1878), Alfred (1844-1900), Helena (1846-1923), Louise (1848-1939), Arthur (1850-1942), Leopold (1853-1884) and Beatrice (1856-1944). According to the Journal of Queen Victoria, "A girl and not a boy, as we had so hoped and wish, we were, I am afraid, sadly disappointed, but yet our hearts were full of gratitude for God having brought me safely and having such a strong and healthy child. Dearest Albert hardly left me at all and was the greatest support and comfort." The Princess was christened on 10 February 1841, at Buckingham Palace, London. Victoria, Princess Royal married Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (18 October 1831 - 15 June 1888) on 25 January 1858, in the Royal Chapel of St. James Palace. He was the son of of Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, German Empress Consort and Queen Consort of Prussia (30 September 1811 - 7 January 1890) and Wilhelm I, German Emperor and King of Prussia (22 March 1797 - 9 March 1888). The couple had eight children.
The Children of Victoria of the United Kingdom and Friedrich III:
Wilhelm II of Germany (1859-1941)
Charlotte of Prussia, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen (1860-1919)
Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1862-1929)
Sigmund, Prince of Prussia (1864-1966)
Viktoria of Prussia, Princess of Schaumburg-Lippe (12 April 1866 - 13 November 1929) Married 1st: Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe in 1890. Married 2nd: Alexander Anatolewitsch Zoubkoff in 1927.
Waldemar, Prince of Prussia (1868-)
Sophia of Prussia, Queen Consort of Greece (14 June 1870 - 13 January 1932) Married Crown Prince Constantine of Greece in 1889.
Margaret of Prussia, Landgravine of Hesse (22 April 1868 - 22 January 1940)
King Friedrich Wilhelm IV died on 2 January 1861. He was succeeded by her father-in-law, as Wilhelm I. Her father, Prince Albert died on 14 December 1861. Her brother, Prince Albert married Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844-1925) on 10 March 1863, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Her sister, Princess Louise married John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquis of Lorne on 21 March 1871, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Her brother, Prince Alfred married Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853-1920) on 23 January 1874, at the Winter Palace, in St. Petersburg. Her brother, Prince Leopold married Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861-1922) on 27 April 1882 in St.George's Chapel, at Windor Castle. Wilhelm I died on 9 March 1888. He was succeeded by her husband, as Friedrich III. Friedrich III died on 15 June 1888. He was interred in the Royal Mausoleum of the Friedenskirche, in Potsdam. Her daughter, Princess Sophia married Crown Prince Constantine of Greece (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) on 27 October 1889, in Athens, Greece. He was the son of Olga Constantinovna of Russia and George I of Greece. From the spring of 1899, Victoria's health began to deteriorate and breast cancer was detected on her. In October 1900, Victoria wrote to her daughter Sophia, "The terrible nights of agony are worse than ever, no rest, no peace. Tears rush down my cheeks when I am not shouting with pain." Her mother, Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901. Victoria wrote to Sophia, "To have lost her seems so impossible... What will life be to me without her." Victoria died aged 60, on 5 August 1901, in Friedrichshof, Germany. She was buried on 13 August 1901, next to her husband in the Royal Mausoleum of the Friedenskirche, Potsdam.
Aleksandra Dionisyevna Danilova was born on 20 November 1903, in Peterhof, Russia. Called Choura, she studied at the Soviet State Ballet and the Imperial Ballet School, in St. Petersburg. In 1920, she graduated. In 1921, she joined the Mariinsky. In 1922, she was promoted to soloist. In 1924, Alexandra Danilova formed a group with George Balanchine and left Russia for a tour to Europe. They soon joined Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. From 1933 to 1938, she danced with de Basil's Ballets Russes. From 1938 to 1952, with Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. In the 1940s, she came to the United States with the Ballet Russe de Monte-Carlo. In 1946, Alexandra Danilova became an American citizen. Also in 1946, she collaborated with Balanchine on a staging of Raymonda. In 1948, Danilova appeared as Fanny Cerrito in Pas de Quatre. In 1949, she guest danced with the Saddler's Wells Ballet. In 1951, she danced at the London Festival Ballet. In 1951, Alexandra Danilova left the Ballet Russe and formed her own concert group, Great Moments of Ballet. From 1954 to 1956, they toured. In 1957, Danilova danced her farewell performance in Tokyo. In 1958, she made her Broadway debut in Oh, Captain! In 1964, George Balanchine hired Danilova to teach at the School of American Ballet. In 1989, she retired. Alexandra Danilova died on 13 July 1997, in New York.
"I love all beautiful things in life, treasure the time I spend with the ones I adore; to travel, to explore, to ease my passion for history and knowledge. I am the one with a big bag, a camera and a notebook - searching for traces from ancient eras. I believe we must learn the past, to understand our time. Centuries changes - not human nature." Ann de Laurén